Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Candidate of History of Kazakhstan, Zh.M. Arynov
candidate of philological sciences Aigerim Smagulova
ALASH INTELLECTUALS ARE THE PRIDE OF THE NATION
The task of transforming the fundamental issues of the history of the Motherland into the subject of study is urgent. Today, clear and truthful conclusions and conclusions have also been made about the line of important events in the history of the nation, which have been negatively influenced by the Bolshevik order and communist ideology. However, research on such a science and responsible research on the offspring is still being propagated.
One of the most important issues of patriotism and patriotism in today’s upbringing of the younger generation is unique: the history of the Alash movement, the history of the Alash party and the AlashOrda government, and the life and socio-political activities of the Alash figures. Alash figures, like the leading scholars of that time, improved their education in the best regional universities, became intelligent.
There were Alash figures who knew the nation ahead of time and precisely defined the course that would be beneficial to their nation in the tensions of the twentieth century, during the tense political events of the twentieth century, which were incomprehensible not only to the Kazakh people, but also to the countries dependent on the imperial Russian Empire.The activities of the Alash lions were not only political, but also the priority areas in which they dealt with the difficult life of the Kazakh people in tsarist Russia and the solution of social problems. Especially from 1905 to 1907. During the first Russian Revolution, ethnic groups demonstrated political activity.The famous “Karkaralinsk petition” was signed, which was signed by more than 14500 people, and an attempt was made to establish a division of the Cadet Party in Uralsk. Alash intellectuals tried to take advantage of Russian parliamentary system, became members of the first and second State Duma (A.Bokeikhan, M.Tynyshbaev, A.Birimzhanov, B.Kulmanov). The government has endeavored to raise the aggravated agricultural problem by supporting opposition parties.In addition, the nation’s intelligentsia began to awaken the people spiritually. In 1909, M.I. Dulatov’s collection of poems “Awake, Kazakh” was published. Intellectual periodicals organized the newspaper “Kazakh”, on its page focused on the most pressing issues of the Kazakh society, and focused on educating the population in the field of cultural education.That is why the Alash intelligentsia was also involved in the issue of recruiting a Kazakh soldier, raised during the First World War. Several issues of the Kazakh newspaper devoted themselves to the military ministry in Petersburg. He later tried to prevent the uprising by predicting the consequences of the uprising that followed the decree of June 25, 1916 (the bloody massacre in the Kazakh-Kyrgyz region in the Zhetysu region, the displacement of the population, the loss of former marital status, etc.). The country was called to rest. The newspaper “Kazakh” has published an appeal “Alash citizens!” Spontaneously involved in the elimination of the consequences of protests.To the Turkestan Committee of the Provisional Government established in February 1917 Bokeikhan, M. Tynyshpayev, M. Chokai etc. The intelligentsia became members and sought to alleviate the crisis situation in the region. Through the Kazakh newspaper, the refugee works tirelessly to return the Kyrgyz-Kazakhs from China to their homeland and ask them for help from the government. However, the petition was openly stated, in particular concerning the amounts and types of taxes, which demanded a better life for the Kazakh people, and which exposed the king’s agricultural policy.They asserted that the existence of the Kazakh people was a problem, they could always choose the course that was in the interests of the Kazakhs and guide the nation in the right way. He argued that power was in equal, and urged that the 1916 liberation uprising be prevented. And even after the rebellion was strengthened, it actively fought the consequences of the uprising.However, due to historical objective reasons, the nomadic nature, which had to take over the imperial power, became relieved, sending the Alash spirit of a rash epoch, who, in combination with the quintessence of the “Zar-zu”, to the historical memory of the people. A. Bokeikhanov, H. Dosmukhamedovich, J. Dosmukhamedovich, M. Tynyshbaev, M. Tynyshbayev, M., who have received the leading university education in various metropolitan institutions. Chokai, etc.The occupation did not intend to transform the local government apparatus into a local executive. They considered it a duty and a duty of loyalty to the nation during the period when the Russian Imperial Government stifled the political, legal and economic colonization of Kazakhstan with a spiritual and cultural expansion. Ahmet Baitursynov wrote this question in a popular article, Revolution and Kirghiz, in the Journal of Nationality in 1919 in the Russian language: With the radius of the revolution, it is a revolution, with its own and easy to understand with a vortex. Also, the expression of the Kirghiz kies with the other and the most important thing is to call them with the Kirghiz sunod. The author wrote on the cause of the problem, saying: “The revolution is coming true and with the radiance of the kirgizami with the help of the chto, the vowel, so that it is greater than the ghetto and the viciousness of the wholesome, the viciousness of the soul, self-sacrificing. You, to honor the revolution, were portrayed as nonsensical Kyrgyz. The concept of: capitalism towards classifiers; Also, the level of complexity is different, as well as in the various meanings: the multiple set of parameters that are connected to the right object » (Baitursunov A.1919).Regarding the revolutions of 1917, George Safarov’s brochure, entitled The Colonial Revolution (Ottoman Turkestan), in 1921 stated: “… until the revolution in 1917. a revolutionary ideology, linked to the Turkestan state, as a secondary object to the common sense of the revolution, to the revolutionary age, a revolutionary revolutionary body. The middle of the full-fledged national Russian language – the improper formation of the interdependence of the nephronyon the basis of the national inheritance. In the revolution of 1917 Turkestan is located in the “pervobytno” … (Safarov G. 1921. 89p.).At the same time, I. Borisov and G. Browno, who expressed their views on historical truth, also spoke (Borisov N. October in Turkestan // Tashkent, 1922. 22-23p). NagirTorekulwas acknowledged by Turkistan in his 1920 work, entitled “Kokandskaya autonomy”, as to the non-readiness of Turkestan for the revolutionary upsets of 1917.
The Oktyabrsky Wave, '' he wrote, teaches in Turkestan how it is bourgeois, as well as in the unmanageable and political masses of the orphans. Particularly as a complement to the national ideology of the “gourmet” and to the slangs “antonyms”, under the common bourgeoisie of the mogul, to be united with the dual classics of the ideals and the teachings, to be fulfilled by the innermost understanding of the human mind. With this period of time, the organization, the beginning of the process, and the stagnation of fluid in the body, the carotid hemisphere, are called the “autonomous drive …” (Torekulov N. Works. – 1997.-25 p.). Yes, that is why the fall of power in Russia by the end of 1917 led the leaders of the Alash movement to decide to establish national autonomy on the Kazakh land (Nurpeisov K. Alash and Alashorda.1995. ).
But the outbreak of the civil war did not create a favorable outcome for that decision. In Alashorda, the February Revolution was intended to reverse the democratic victories that have been brought. Thus, together with those who supported the Democratic Federation and the Constituent Assembly, they fought against the rebellious Bolsheviks inside the country.Their negotiation with the Soviet authorities failed.
Given the current military and political situation, and predicting the level of development of the Kazakh society, the Alashorda government sought to preserve the integrity and well-being of the people, with the support of anti-Bolshevik forces.In the midst of the tensions of 1918-1920, the Kazakh autonomists sought to save their native land from bloodshed and to ensure their independence. During Kolchak’s reign, seeking to return “Nicholas’ time and discipline,” the Alash citizens sought to mourn and mourn, defending the interests of their hungry, narcissistic native population .A.Baitursynov’s fate of autonomy in Kolchak is illustrated in a well-known article “Revolution and the Kyrgyz”: “Yesterday’s royal horse Kolchak stood before the Kyrgyz (Kazakhs) with the whole essence of a military dictator, as well as with all the annoying kingship that the Kyrgyz had not yet forgotten. » (Baitursynov A. 1919.)However, the time when class interests were put on the agenda, not national issues, did not reach Alashorda’s goals. The Russian government, which is hostile to national movements, has sought to use autonomy only for its own purposes. Russian chauvinism, mistrust of the “screwed” people, and suspicions of the Alashorda government, which remained even during the Civil War, did not leave the Alashorda government’s side, and in the end it left no way but to surrender to Soviet power. The situation in AlashOrda was described by a Russian scientist and scientist DA Amanzholova directly:”The tradition of the Aktar movement, a Russian-language tradition that did not accept the independence of the former oppressed peoples of Russia, has also been fully maintained in its relations with Alashorda. Mistrust of tyrants was a policy common to all the governments in the region. ”(Amanzholova D. M., 1994. )Therefore, the Turkestan autonomy, in which Alash intellectuals participated, was also a victim of Bolshevik politics. M. ChokaiDespite its young age, in the same historical period it exerted great efforts for the autonomy of the local population, creating a central council of the Muslims of the Turkestan region and uniting the Turkic peoples. “… At that time Turkestan was not ready to ask or accept the issue of separation from Russia.”( Esmagambetov K.L.; 2008.)As Mustafa himself wrote, this period is one of the invaders of the liberation struggle in history. Alash personalities have always been a good example of selfless service to the nation. Prior to the unpunished persecution of the Soviet authorities during the years of persecution (Zhurtbai T., 1997), the intellectuals made efforts to protect the socio-economic interests and culture of the Kazakh people, and worked in education. As a result, the Alash intellectuals, seeking to study and solve the realities of life and the difficult life situation of their native people through theoretical knowledge of socio-political orientation, passed all the tests and experiences of political struggle of that time. Being a member of political parties and organizations (cadets, Eser parties, Muslim, national, Turkic movements) formed in the central cities of the empire, he used a variety of tribunes and was able to engage in political-expressive journalism.
History of Kazakhstan Leader of Nation For students History education Sacred Kazakhstan News Multimedia Home Expert opinions From Alash Horde to Independent Kazakhstan: succession of ideas From Alash Horde to Independent Kazakhstan: succession of ideas Today in the country there is a targeted work on revival of historical consciousness of society. Only knowing history of the people and the country, there is understanding of the special value of the independence found at the end of the last century. Today in the country there is a targeted work on revival of historical consciousness of society. Only knowing history of the people and the country, there is understanding of the special value of the independence found at the end of the last century. The history of the Kazakh people shows that fight for freedom and independence of the country never stopped. Representatives of the national intellectuals of a turn of 19th and 20th century played not the last role in the century-long fight. Appearance of movement and the first political party «Alash», the government of Alash Horde witnessed the increased civil maturity and high potential of the Kazakh political elite capable to resolve fatal issues of future development of the native people. Representatives of «Alash» and Kazakh administrative elite, scientific and creative intellectuals laid the foundation for the Kazakh statehood. Today we live in that country the boundaries of which in the beginning of 1920 were contoured by participants of Alash Horde. Leaders of Alash took an active part in the process of national and territorial demarcation of Central Asia and reunion of the Kazakh lands. Representatives of Alash intellectuals A.Bukeykhanov, A. Baytursynov, M. Dulatov, A. Beremzhanov, M. Shokay, Zh. Akpayev, M. Tynyshpayev, A. Yermekov, and also national communists S. Hodzhanov, T. Ryskulov, S. Mendeshev, S. Seyfullin, S. Asfendiyarov, S. Sadvokasov, N. Nurmakov and others made all efforts for support of integrity of the Kazakh territory. The Kazakh intellectuals of that generation were the people of a high burst and self-sacrifice creating outlook of the era. They are for us, contemporaries, indeed an unconditional sample of moral, unselfishness and devotion to national and a civil duty. The most difficult that it is impossible to reach neither with mind, nor with wealth, soul composure, available only to the higher moral inherent only in broad education, we will experience only when neither soul, nor a body do not make to anybody the evil». Later the leader Alash Horde AlikhanBukeykhanov wrote: «I live, I breathe and exist by internal affairs of the homeland, for me its destiny above all benefits… I cannot sleep peacefully if I do not know, the situation in it». Members of «Alash» movement fought for finding of statehood of Kazakhs. «Our purpose is to give opportunity to the people to decide the destiny. Only having achieved autonomy, the people will take destiny in their hand», — said ZhanshaDosmukhamedov. «Creation of the independent state on an equal basis with other highly developed people, who have rich territory and statehood — was the main objective in creation of „Alash“ movement, — said AlikhanErmekov. The Kazakh intellectuals aimed to raise a level of development of the people in the same level as other advanced countries of Asia, such as Japan. Thus, they were accused afterwards of Japanese espionage, having declared „Japanese agents“. „Alash“ party became one of the first political organizations of Kazakhs, who designed the complex measures to solve the problems of that time. The main idea of members of „Alash“ was the unity of the people, and this logo is still topical today. In extreme conditions of that time members of „Alash“ showed exceptional flexibility, at the same time they were firm politicians. Main objectives of movement „Alash“ were creation of system of the state self-government, upholding of the right of the people for national self-determination, upgrade of the Kazakh society with use of the best world practices. The President of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayev in his the book „In the stream of history“ described merits of figures „Alash“ Horde: „At the beginning of the 20th century the task of framing of the Kazakh national idea was assumed by the spiritual and intellectual elite which advanced idea of national consolidation. … The fact of creation of the national political organization in our national history is not fully realized. Moreover, many ideas proposed by leaders of „Alash“ kept their values up to now. It was not the nationalist, but patriotic organization which set as the purpose step by step transformation of the Kazakh society and its adaptation to the modern realities“. It is known that „Alash“ party did not receive autonomy and their leaders did not have opportunity to realize the program of creation and strengthening of the Kazakh statehood on the basis of unity of people all layers. Rejecting violence, denying the class nature of the state, „Alash“ figures appeared against dictatorship of one class in society. To acknowledge the victories of the Soviet power forced in the circumstances it, and having accepted a sentence of Bolsheviks about operation in government, the former figures of „Alash“ Horde aimed to give to the Soviet power the national contents, to approach to interests of local people. Figures of „Alash“ were the highly educated and truly erudite people possessing deep knowledge of social and humanitarian and natural-science knowledge. Many leaders of „Alash“ movement were not only human rights activists, political and public figures, but also prominent publicists, publishers of newspapers and magazines, philosophers, poets, teachers, authors of scientific researches, books and textbooks. Members of „Alash“ Horde and close to them by spirit Kazakh intellectuals and creative figures were not restricted in the national frame. But in contrary, all of them were the people highly educated, multilaterally talented, open and alien to any isolation. Many of them graduated leading universities of Russia, also in other countries like Germany, Poland, Turkey and etc. They were outstanding publicists. They organized release of remarkable newspapers and logs of publications of the government of „Alash“ Horde. Figures of „Alash“ movement were the phenomena born once a century. Each of them was a beacon and light for the people. Evaluating recent history,it is necessary to consider all contradictions of the Soviet era with its indisputable gains and achievements, victories and tragedies, brutal violation of the personal and collective rights. Fight for social unity of society and the statement of new ideology was followed by suppression of national consciousness and leveling of identity of national culture. The Kazakh intellectuals contributed a lot in study and promotion of national history, culture and traditions of the people. About the main noble purpose of the „Alash“ intellectuals was to serve to the people. It was clearly explained in the letter known in the history — „Urpakka hat“ („The letter to generation“), from Butyrsky prison in January, 1929 MirzhakypDulatov wrote: „I considered a duty to help the enslaved, depressed people to escape from this slave situation… I do not think that I could foresee events in the political sphere in time that presented now as fight against the Soviet power. My only one desire is to see the Kazakh nation independent and happy“. „The dawn of freedom will be seen by our descendants“, — dreamed „Alash“ leaders. Releasing anniversary, 100th number „Yash Turkestan“ in emigration, Mustafa Shokay in 1938, believing in the dream, called the people for unity and independence: „… The sun of release and independence will rise and we, modest fighters, will be in our native land among our people“. Today, in the conditions of independence with special sense perceived the words brilliantly said by Mustafa Shokay: „National freedom is a consequence of national spirit. National spirit is raising and brings it results in the presence of national freedom and independence“. The dreams of „Alash“ leaders came true. Ideas and ideals, the provisions and principles, generated by generation of Kazakhs intellectuals of the beginning of the 20th century save the value and demanded up to now. Successfully resist to new calls of time in the contentions of internal and external treats, crisis of values of a civilization, to defend interests of the nation — a duty of present generations. And although every time sets new tasks, but ideas of „Alash“ continue to live and again remind of themselves during cardinal changes in the country. They are equal rights, public consent and peace, cultural progress of the nation, meritocracy, state language, attraction not only elite, but also broad masses to government affairs. Leaders of „Alash“, at the level of the advanced requirements of that era, the European liberal and democratic values, proposed the principles of the democratic, constitutional, secular, social state, idea of system of public administration and self-government, institutes of presidency, parliamentarism, economic, social and political upgrade of society. In the context of the time they called for high-qualityup-dating of the nation, for breakthrough to progress. And today the same honor and courage of generation of the intellectuals of the 20–30’s of the last century known in the history are demanded. The modern society needs innovative ideas and world outlook reference points, in leaders who are capable to think originally and non-standard to work. Nowadays, in the conditions of independence, we watch successive correlation between ideas of the first Kazakh intellectuals of the last century and the present. Strategy of national break proceeds in initiatives, ideas and activities of the First President of independent Kazakhstan and affects all spheres of public life, domestic and foreign policy of the state. At the beginning of 1990, in one of the speech N. Nazarbayev, who suggested the idea of creation of Central Asian union, mentioned in one of his performances that the idea of unity of the Central Asian states was proposed for the first time by Mustafa Shokay. The idea of ancestors about unity of the Turkic people is embodied in activities of the Council of the Turkic speaking states created in 2009. The Kazakh intellectuals always showed care of destiny of the national, native language, not only cultural, but also political attribute of the nation. The question of development state and other languages today, as a century ago, is topical for sovereign Kazakhstan. And at that time AkhmetBaytursynov emphasized that in the conditions of the accruing inflow to Kazakhstan of other nationalities „the question about independent existence of Kyrgyz people (Kazakh — Zh. K.) that we are faced with is growing. To keep our independence, it is necessary for us in every way and methods to aim to education and general culture. For this purpose we first of all shall be engaged in development of literature in the native language. It is necessary to keep in mind that to claim for independent life can only those people who speak in their native language and have own literature“. A. Baytursynov was concerned that „the modern Kyrgyz intellectuals who got an education at the Russian schools and the Tatar madrasahs already started neglecting the Kyrgyz language, talk and correspond among themselves in the Russian and Tatar languages. … If we do not want it, it is necessary to resolve this question in a root and from now on to start enhancement of the Kyrgyz language and literature“. From this idea he never went back a step. The Kazakh intellectuals of a boundary of the19th-20th centuries were multi linguists. According to AlimkhanErmekov’s grandson — Oleg Ermekov, his grandfather knew five languages. Mustafa Shokay along with Russian could also masterfully speak in English, French, German, Polish and Turkish languages. And today the principles of honor and a debt proposed by the „Alash“ intellectuals in relation to staff of public administration are demanded. The thoughts of Shokay about the worker of the apparatus and official: „National member“ are so vital for us until now. First of all he is the servant of the nation, who fulfills his national debt not by anyone’s orders, but on a conscience debt». One of actual tasks of present Kazakhstan’s civil service is the statement of the principles of a meritocracy (system of merits). Today, it is impossible not to recall instructive example of present generations of managers about another fact from the history of «Alash» intellectuals. The longer we will remember about the «Alash» figures, the less often we will test bitterness of disappointment in tests for commitment of justice, compassion and mercy, ability of each of us to show a personal responsibility for the events around, to resist to lie, bribery, not to give in to temptation of mercenary and greedy enrichment at the expense of people around. The «Alash» idea, created at the beginning of the 20th century continues to serve interests of independent Kazakhstan. Time will pass and new generations will come, but also in the subsequent decades and centuries the worthy heritage of social though and spiritual experience of the «Alash» intellectuals will support the Kazakhstan people in the stream of history
References:1.Baitursunov A. Revolution and Kirghiz. – At d. The Birth of a Nation, August 1919, August 3.2.Safarov G. The Colonial Revolution. Option Turkestan. – M., 1921. 89.3.Borisov N. October in Turkestan // October October Revolution. – Tashkent, 1922. 22-23;4. Torekulov N. Works. – Almaty: Kazakhstan, 1997.-25 p.5. Nurpeisov K. Alash and Alashorda. – Almaty: Atatek, 1995. – 256 p.6. MA Russia (Central State Archive of the Russian Federation). 1701, 1st, 35th case7.Baitursynov A. Revolution and Kirghizia // Life of Nationality. – 1919.- August 3.8.Amanzholova D. Kazakh Autonomy and Russia. History Alash. – M., 1994. – 213 s.9.Esmagambetov K.L. A person who has gained recognition in the world. – Almaty: Dike Press, 2008.10.Zhurtbai T. Discussion. – Almaty: Kazakhstan, 1997.11. https://e-history.kz/en/expert/view/47
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Candidate of History of Kazakhstan, Zh.M. Arynov
candidate of philological sciences Aigerim Smagulova