Problems in the field of education at the beginning of the XX century

Al-Farabi Kazakh National University

Candidate of History of Kazakhstan, Zh.M. Arynov

Candidate of philological sciences  Aigerim Smagulova




Problems in the field of education at the beginning of the XX century


Alash movement is a unique page of history, which had a special significance in the life of the Kazakh people of the early twentieth century. The history of the Alash movement is so relevant and relevant for us today that it was, first of all, closely linked to the life of the lions who were its representatives, and the love of its nation for the sake of its nation, its loyalty to the Fatherland.          In Russia in 1917 As a result of the February Revolution, the overthrow of the monarchy, the establishment of a Provisional Government was welcomed by Mustafa Shokai, along with his friend, Bashkir figure, Zaki Validi.          The collapse of the monarchy and the rise of revolutionary Democrats to power strengthened the activity of Kazakh intellectuals. «The day of freedom and freedom has come,» he said Alikhan Bokeikhan and Mustafa Shokaylar managed to establish a Special Committee to govern Turkestan, led by Kerensky.       He served as Commissioners for the Provisional Government on the premises. However, his idea of ​​establishing a Turkestan autonomy within Russia, Chekidze, who heads the Petrograd Council of Workers and Soldiers’ Deputies, views it as a «separatist» idea [1]. The main purpose of Mustafa was to create a Greater Turkestan Union, uniting all Turkic peoples living in Russia. That is why he was born in 1916. Opened a secret organization called the Turkestan Association. In association with the opposition of the Russian devastating pressure, the Association of Muslim Political Organizations (the Great Zhamiya) and the Council of Muslims (Shuro-Islami), as well as the Kazakh national Alash Party, convened a Turkestan Muslim Congress in March 1917 in Tashkent, where the Central Committee elected a Muslim center. The center was headed by Mustafa Shokai. Mustafa opposed the policy of further Russian settlement of the Turkic peoples of Soviet Russia. In November 1917 the Provisional Government of the Turkestan Autonomy is formed. Prime Minister Mukhamedzhan Tynyshbayev, after his resignation, Mustafa Shokai was approved. The congress identified priority tasks of the Provisional Council. Among them is the need to «convene the Turkestan Constituent Assembly in a short period of time, take measures to provide the population with food and essentials, start funding the Turkestan autonomy fund, establish a people’s militia and take all measures to protect the rights of the peoples inhabiting the region»[2].

However (1920) A.Baitursynov at the congress of the enlighteners set specific tasks and specified the mechanisms of its realization. He first made efforts to train teachers, in two ways: one by training rural teachers through short courses and the other by strengthening the role of teaching institutions. It was considered at the congress that in 1921 the budget determined to open 52 short-term teacher-training courses throughout the country. In 1920 in Kazakhstan 14 pedagogical technical schools, 6 agricultural technical schools, 2 forestry technical schools, 1 vetro technical college (in Orenburg), 1 medical school (in Orenburg), 1 industrial-economic technical school (in Semey), institutes: Syrdarya province; 2.PINO (Practical Institute of Oversight) in Orenburg; 3.Inpros in the city of Semirechye, Almaty; 4. The Pedagogical Institute is located in Tashkent [3].

However, the leader of Alash A. Baitursynov spoke openly about problems and shortcomings in the field of education. For example, the following shortcomings in school are noted: many schools are not provided with a home, and those who have do have their own deficiencies, such as lack of housing, heating, systems, lack of textbooks, etc. good school homes are given everywhere to military institutions, provided that those released do not use them themselves. School staff were poor and provided with no material support.

Low salaries, no pay, low salaries for teachers. Schools are closing down due to lack of teachers [4]. However, the national intelligence was involved in the activities of the People’s Enlightenment Commission. For example, E. Omarovich, T. Shonanovich and others. officials to manage the Commissariat’s sectors. A.Baitursynov created a special commission on collection of samples of folk poetry, music and ethnographic data under the Academic Center established in 1921. The Kazakhstan Research Society has made a significant contribution to this endeavor. Famous historians, connoisseurs of music and folklore of the republic at that time were involved in these cases
— A.Divaev, A.P. Chuloshnikov, A.V. Zataevich, A.D. Kastalsky, N.N. Mironov, A.L. Melkov, N.V. Melkova, A.A. Like Chetrikina, etc. the intellectuals who were reading were involved [5].  In organizing these cases A.M. Baitursynov played a significant role.

In addition, asparagus (party history) in the centers for collecting, researching and publishing the history of the Communist Party and the October Revolution were handled in local centers (party history bureaus) in the major cities, provinces, and national republics in the 1920’s [6]. February 16, 1933, was imprisoned in Arkhangelsk Ahmed Baitursynuly Ekaterina Pavlovna Peşkovağa: «I am a teacher, svyazavşïy employers prosvetïtelnoy obşçestvenno kwltwrnwyu, pwblïstïçeskwyu, lïteratwrnwyu, and how critical enslaved nacïï, provodïvşïy sending slave opredelennwyu polïtïçeskwyu ïdeyu — ïdeyu osvobojdenïya Kazakh people borbw via protïv advanced mode, multiplexing and multiplexing; For that reason, he tried to sit in the turret, go to bed in the thick mode. As the critical nation worked with self-motivated enthusiasm, giving it all its own wisdom and goodness, it also had a good relationship with the Kazakh people. And you can get a good job, in a good way all the time from the Kazakh sun, and when you leave (62 years), add up to 20 months to the tour, 22 months to the camp and go to your home, to your home, to your home. A.Bokeikhanov. April 29, 1933.

Peshkova EP « Ten eyewitnesses of the Kazakh sun. Baitursynov, Cyril and Methodius, Novikov and Radishchev with a sunroof, ten azbuqa, under the direction of Professor Malova, one of azbuqa … He is the author of grammar, syntax, book, book in the Kazakh language. On Narokompros Kazakh ASSR … a poetic, satirical poem. Ten patriots, a nationalist … an intriguing proverb of a wholesome culture … «[7]. At the same time, almost all Alash leaders were subjected to repression. However, A. Bokeikhanov’s anti-imperialist, anti-colonial political group clearly understood one of the aspects of national life. That is, without the reconstruction and restoration of national statehood — the preservation of the nation’s integrity and uniqueness. Realizing that they were acting, the royal authorities persecuted the national intelligentsia as separatists. Unfortunately, this act of tsarist power was continued by Soviet power, as well, hampering the liberation movement. In other words, the Soviet and Kazakhs, who were on their way to building a national state using the revolutionary changes of Russia in 1917, categorically refused to grant national autonomy. The Bolshevik government viewed this act of nationalism as a factor weakening the giant Eurasian empire. There is a phrase by the well-known geophysicist Halford McKin: geography is a summary answer to any theoretical problem (geography is a simple answer to a specific theoretical theorem) [8].

The Bolsheviks, of course, concealed their strategic goals in geography. Did not go ahead. And the idea of ​​socialism, class struggle, and other theoretical principles have, to some degree, played a part in this strategic goal. A. Baitursynov VI In a letter to Lenin (1920), «any vicious policy created to deceive the Kazakh people is glossy, but to no avail. A nation that has been relentlessly reluctant to endure the centuries-old oppression of the kingdom, may again suffer in silence, but it may well be out in the day when this patience has come. «[9] At the same time, Galam M. Kozybayev emphasized the greatness and activity of Akhmet Baitursynov in the matter of his nationality, in particular in the 17 April 1920, the head of the Soviet government, V.I. He also sent a letter to Lenin stating that he had expressed his views on national issues.           Opposition to the Soviet government endured totalitarian repression in the late 1920’s. Stalinist leftist politics put ideological pressure on Kazakh society. Goloshchekin Baitursynov, Auezov, Dulatov, Kemengerov, Omarov, Zhumabayev, Aimautov, Zhumataev, Seifullin, who were leaders in Kazakhstan, were referred to as «nationalists,» and Stalin was related to the counterrevolutionary organization Aymagov, and Baitursynov had a connection with Aymagov Zhumabov. A criminal case was initiated against him and he was arrested. According to the sentence of the OGPU judicial collegium of April 4, 1930, the Kazakh intelligentsia was sentenced to long term confinement and exile. Citizens such as A. Baitursynov, M. Dulatov, H. Gabbasov, J. Aimautov, M. Esbolov were initially sentenced to death and then transferred to camp for ten years. The blame for them was severe [10]. 1937-1938 The Soviet totalitarian system has historically organized a bloody massacre with the false accusations of «enemies of the people», killing millions of people. The list of «Enemies of the People» was first of all educated Alash activists who worked hard for their country.

As a result the founders of the Kazakh Soviet literature — S.Seifullin, B.Mailin, I.Zhansugurov, M.Zhumabayev, M.Dulatov were punished. Outstanding representatives of the science of Kazakhstan, the founder of the Kazakh linguistics A. Baitursynov, the outstanding linguist scientist, professor K. Zhubanov, the founder of the Kazakh school of history S. Asfendiyarov and others. was. The Karaganda regime has a special regime on the map of Kazakhstan — the Karaganda labor camp (KarLag), the Akmolinsk (AOZHAL) camp of women who have betrayed their homeland. The Kazakh intellectuals were detained as a result of a bloody massacre of such false accusations. According to some sources, from February 25 to March 13, 1938, dozens were killed daily. All this showed that the Bolsheviks were a way to get rid of intellectually opposed intellectuals.




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